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  • Intentional communities - introduction

     Intentional communities representative image

    “Human nature is innately and inherently social” – George H Sabine

    What are intentional communities?

    There are lots of ways to live communally, from shared houses to communes to traditional villages, but we’re talking here about intentional communities – groups of people who come together intentionally to share various aspects of their lives; the extent of the sharing depends on the community.

    Communities are great places to bring up kids, and to be a kid.

    Communal living groups sometimes call themselves communes, eco-villages, cohousing groups, or alternative communities. They can be very interesting, satisfying, healthy and fun places to live, and there are many different kinds. Some have a shared philosophy, which could be religious, spiritual, environmental, political, or based on ideas around child-care, diet or other practical things. Often there’s no unifying philosophy except a desire to live in community.

    There are differences as regards organisation too. Some are very communal, some are loose-knit; some share income, some don’t; some share meals, some don’t; some share one big house, some have separate houses around the property; some are urban, some are rural; some require new members to have capital, some you can just join and start paying rent; some are registered housing co-ops, some are land trusts, and some are owned by individuals.

    Mvuti Ujamaa village, Tanzania. 10 households elect a delegate to the village committee. A combination of factors effectively killed the system, but some villages remain.

    Cohousing is a type of communal living where certain spaces (e.g. gardens, living rooms, laundry rooms etc.) are shared, but members have their own private homes.

    There is also the germ of a movement towards new rural self-build communities, such as Lammas and the Ecological Land Co-op.

    Springhill Cohousing in Stroud; the UK’s first new-build cohousing project.


    There have been, and still are, many traditional and tribal groups in which people live communally, but the first known example of intentional communal living was the Essenes, on the shores of the Dead Sea over 2000 years ago. Since then, famous examples include the Diggers, religious groups like the Shakers (who are no longer around), Hutterites, Mennonites and Amish (who are), and the 19th century utopian communities of Robert Owen and Charles Fourier. Mexico (Ejido), Israel (Kibbutz) and Tanzania (Ujamaa) introduced (or in the case of Ejido, re-introduced) large-scale intentional communal systems in the 20th century; and China (People’s Communes) and Russia (Kolkhoz) introduced decidedly unintentional ones.

    There was a wave of hippie commune formation in the late 60s & 70s, some of which are still around. Longevity involves solid structures when it comes to legal and financial matters, along with responsibility when it comes to work and membership. There’s not so much tie-dye or free love around nowadays (you’d probably find more in the suburbs), although environmental and social concerns are still important.

    Twin Oaks – a very well-organised intentional community of 100 people in Virginia, US.

    What are the benefits of intentional communities?


    • Counters the loneliness and alienation that many people experience in modern consumer society.
    • Personal development from learning how to live closely with other people.
    • Fun.
    • Good places to gain skills – practical, social, accounting, cooking for large numbers, caring for animals, gardening, meetings, running courses, chainsaws, building maintenance etc.
    • Great places for kids to grow up – other kids to play with, lots of different adult input, shared toys, lots of space; good for parents too – shared childcare, safety.
    • Good places to grow old – always useful things to do, experience is valued, always company.
    Classic Australian community house: self-built, with a tin roof, porch, hammock, solar hot water panels and garden – this one is at Patanga Community in NSW.


    • Shared resources – such as laundry and kitchen facilities, vehicles and tools.
    • Members can produce a lot of their own (organic) food and grow their own space-heating fuel in the form of firewood.
    • It’s easier to experiment with many of the other topics on this site.
    • Members and visitors can be educated about those facilities.
    • Can ensure that chemicals are not used on the land, and that wildlife and habitats are protected.
    • Internal recycling in the form of books, clothes, CDs, furniture etc.
    Redfield Community, where Lowimpact.org was born, is a registered housing co-op set in 18 acres of woodland, pasture, organic gardens and orchards.


    • Can provide affordable housing.
    • Can share equipment like lawn-mowers, washing machines etc.
    • Can buy consumables in bulk.
    Founder and resident of Emerald Village community, near San Diego, Bianca Heyming shares how living with many people is not simply “Bliss, Love, and Light,” but in addition a commitment to personal development, vulnerability, and hard work.

    What can I do?

    If you think you might be interested in living communally, think about what kind of community would suit you best, and do some research about what kinds of intentional communities are out there. It doesn’t matter in which order you do this – you might find a community that you really like, maybe because of the people living there, that on paper, doesn’t tick all your boxes when it comes to the criteria you’re looking for.

    How many people would you like to live with, ideally? Would you prefer a large community with lots going on, or a small, intimate group, more like a family? How much are you happy sharing (meals, bathrooms, income, gardens)? What part of the country, or the world, would you like to live in, and in a rural or urban location? Are you looking for a place with a specific philosophy, or a particular age group, focused on practical work, or personal development, or with no focus?

    Teaching craft skills to local villagers at Mitraniketan Community, Kerala, India.

    See our resources for more on communal living. Making decisions and getting along together are crucial in a community. See ‘Personal development‘ books and links for information about conflict resolution, and consensus decision-making. Consensus isn’t the only decision-making process that works for intentional communities, but it often works well – you don’t want a group splitting into factions, and it’s not brilliant to have some members who aren’t on board with a decision that’s been made.

    Lammas in Pembrokeshire – successfully challenged the planning system to allow a new self-build community.

    There are directories of intentional communities in the UK, in Europe, in North America and the world – see our links page. Some communities require you to buy a share of the property, or to buy a unit. Others don’t require any money at all – you just start paying rent. Most communities welcome visitors, either paying or working. Many have regular visitor days. An excellent way to visit communities is by joining WWOOF. And here’s an Australian manual that includes information on visiting communities. Never just turn up at a community, as they are people’s homes; always write or call to arrange a visit first.

    Growing mushrooms in the waste from the rice crop – Yamagishi Association, Japan.

    You may have a strong desire to start a community – maybe because there isn’t one in the area you want to live in; maybe because you’re part of a group of friends who would like to do it; or maybe you have a new idea on how a community could be. It may be worth living in an existing community first, to get a feel for how they work.

    Here’s a guide to starting a community, by the Federation of Egalitarian Communities. It’s US-centric, but with lots of useful general information.

    Whilst you’re here, why not take a look at the other 25+ day-to-day living topics available? And don’t forget to visit our main topics page to explore over 200 aspects of low-impact living and our homepage to learn more about why we do what we do.

    The views expressed here are those of the author and not necessarily lowimpact.org's


    • 1holley corbett January 4th, 2017

      hiya does anybody know of any eco communities in ireland north or south that are open for a new family to join we are interested in a self build eco house and a self sufficient life .any help would be very much appreciated .h

    • 2Murina Marsden February 21st, 2017

      Hi can anyone point us in right direction were looking for a cohousing or eco cooperative living for over 55in Manchester area.


    • 3John Goodman February 21st, 2017

      Hi Murina. I suggest you post a similar message on the UK Cohousing Network website http://cohousing.org.uk

    • 4Martin Prosser December 29th, 2017

      Sunflower Cohousing have bought a property in France, and are looking for assistance in building new timber framed houses inside existing stone barns and a grey water recycling system with a natural pool. We would welcome visits from persons who might wish to consider joining us – equal financial commitment, equal share, equal say.

      sunflowercohousing.org.uk & sunflowercohousing.fr

      https://www.facebook.com/groups/505483079482490/ & https://www.facebook.com/SunflowerCohousing/

    • 5grandfather michael April 9th, 2018

      Hi Murina, have you found anything suitable yet?

    • 6Grandfather Michael April 25th, 2018

      In addition to WWOOF there is Helpex where you can stay with people who want helpers for specific projects. It operates all over Europe so there are broad experiences on offer if you do a search. For example you might want to improve your Spanish or French as part of the exchange.

    • 7sirstainabilityGrandfather Michael May 12th, 2018

      I’m surprised there isn’t more interest in this blog. What about an input from European or American communities?

    • 8Damien "Haleem" Butler August 13th, 2018

      hello everyone my wife and I are looking to join a international community we have done WWOFing in spain and we are currently living in Morocco, we are originally from the states but we are looking for to join intentional community either abroad or in the states any help would be great

      my email is [email protected]

    • 9Sian July 7th, 2020

      Hi Murina, did you contact MUCH (Manchester Urban CoHousing?) on [email protected]

    • 10Alejandra February 10th, 2021

      Hi, I’m interested in knowing more. Who has vacancy and where? Thank you

    • 11Martin Prosser February 10th, 2021

      Hi Alejandra! Sunflower Cohousing in France is looking for members. We are going through a bit of a hiatus at the moment, but are looking to start afresh with new members this summer if the Covid situation has settled.

    • 12Dave Darby February 10th, 2021

      Alejandra – plus see noticeboards on Diggers & Dreamers – https://www.diggersanddreamers.org.uk

    • 13Dan February 8th, 2022

      Hi, we’re starting a sustainable land-based community around Bristol / SE Wales. We are looking for more members, are actively looking for land, have regular meetings, have some funding ready and are putting together a set of values/constitution. We are hoping to create a diverse, multi-generational community for people with different skills and talents, with land–based businesses and community projects.

      If you’d like to find out more, drop us an e-mail at [email protected]

    • 14Karuna March 20th, 2022


      Could you add me to your newsletters?


      Karuna Light

    • 15Dave Darby March 20th, 2022

      Karuna – done. Sorry, we’re going to fix the subscribe to newsletter button soon.

    • 16Dan March 31st, 2022

      Hi, a little update on my above post. We are a small group ready to start a new sustainable land-based community either in Scotland within 2h around Glasgow, or around Bristol / SE Wales. We are looking for more members, are actively looking for land, have regular meetings, have some funding ready and are putting together a set of values/constitution. We are hoping to create a diverse, multi-generational community for people with different skills and talents, with land–based businesses and community projects.

      If you’d like to find out more, drop us an e-mail at [email protected]

    • 17John November 11th, 2022

      I am retired, 68, single, have lived alone all my life, now looking for a life change. Could anyone suggest where I could try a community in the south of England/Scotland.

    • 18Lusan February 3rd, 2023

      We are an intentional community of vegan forest gardening enthusiasts forming in SW Scotland. We’re a registered housing co-op seeking a few more members before we start looking for land. More info at http://www.lusancoop.co.uk

    • 19Rebecca Stacey February 5th, 2023

      Hi Lusan, I’ll get in touch with you – if you want to write a blog introducing yourself to the community here at lowimpact that would be very welcome!

    • 20Luke Donnelly March 25th, 2023


      Our family of 4- my fiancé, our 3yo daughter, 13yo dog and I are really interested in joining another intentional community. We lived for two years in a similar community at the Hockerton Housing project, before we left to travel France and Spain, including a workaway placement in Las Palas southern Spain.

      We returned home earlier this month and are now looking at our next home. Ideally this would be in the East Midlands for my commute to work, but we would consider further a field, so please get in touch to share any opportunities.

      I’m a trained yoga teacher who works for the district council and my partner is a reiki master who is also a booking writer.


      All the best

      Luke, Becca, Bali and Bruzer 🧘🏻‍♂️👨‍👩‍👧🐾
    • 21Lusan March 26th, 2023

      Just an update that Lusan Co-op in Scotland didn't manage to get enough members and has disbanded.
    • 22Dyno March 26th, 2023

      Where’s Lusan in Scotland? My sis is at Loch Carron not far from the Isle of Skye.. how far? How many members did you have? How many were you after?
    • 23Anna Semenenko October 16th, 2023

      Lusan in Scotland. Hope you can revive

      I am a retired midwife - would love to start a community somewhere. Waiting to find a buyer for my house , that’s all.

      anyone wants to join in?

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